BBA 1st Year Business Communication Notes: What is Communication?: The word communication comes from a Latin word ‘communicare’ which means to ‘share’ or ‘participate’.
Communication is the process by which we exchange meanings, facts, ideas, opinions or emotions with other people. It is the art of exchanging opinions, thoughts, facts and ideas in an emphatic manner so that the person at the other end receives and understands the subject matter involved clearly and perceives it in the same way it was intended by the sender.
According to Peter Little, “Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organizations, so that it results in an understanding response.”
Business Communication has become an absolute requirement for all organizations for various reasons, such as:
- It acts as the basis of organizational growth in terms of human and public relations
- It widens the outlook of people making them understand the business scenario from a broader perspective
- Business Communication enhances the overall relationship maintenance capabilities of the organization
- It empowers the organization to handle public relations in an effective manner
- It increases personal productivity and confidence of all in the organization by multi-fold levels
Business Communication Questions and Answers
Some of the business communication questions and answers are mentioned below. You can download the QnA in business communication pdf form.
- What is Communication?
- What are the objectives of Communication?
- What are the various types of communication?
- What are the barriers to communication?
- What are the essentials of an effective business letter?
- What do you mean by effective listening?
- What are the objectives of Communication?
- Explain the different aims with which communication is done.
- Explain ’Information’ as an objective of communication.
- Explain any 2 models of communication.
- Feedback is an important component of communication. Explain
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BBA Business Communication Notes
BBA Business Communication Notes:- In this post Business communication notes for unit 1st. unit 1st cover these topics meaning and objective of Business communication, forms of Communication, Communication Model and process, Principles of Effective Communication, all topics are included in this post.
Business Communication BBA, MBA, B Com M, Com all student study in this subject business communication is a very important subject BBA, MBA, B Com M, Com student. BBA, MBA, B Com M, Com Business Communication Notes For unit 1st very Short Answer Questions, Short answer Question, and long question answer included in this post. this to read this artical.
Section-A Very Short Answer Questions
Q. 1. What is communication?
Ans. Communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘Communis’ which means to share. Communication may, therefore, be defined as sharing of information, facts, opinions, emotions and ideas, so as to create mutual understanding between people. Thus, communication is more than transferring information. It is a two-way process.
Q. 2. Write the definition of communication according to Allen.
Ans. According to Allen “The total-sum of all the things one person does, he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another, it is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”
Q. 3. What is the nature of communication?
Ans. The concept of communication is universal and as old as human beings. That is why different views have been expressed about the nature of communication, i.e. communication is a human process, it is both an art and science, universal process, wide process, and social process.
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Q. 4. What are the three characteristics of communication?
(a) Communication is an ongoing process. When communication is absent, human activity ceases to exist.
(b) Communication is essential in all types of organizations and at all levels of management. It pervades all human relationships..
(c) Organization communication consists of a flow of messages through serial networks. These are networks for problem-solving, workflow, information sharing and socialising.
Q. 5. Name the Latin word from which the word communication is derived.
Q. 6. What is effective communication?
Ans. Effective and timely communication of values, competition, technological know-how, government regulations and other important information relating to business environment is very much necessary for the very existence and success of the business. It is the life blood of management. It helps in planning, effective decision making, basis of direction and control, the basis of co-ordination and in functions like motivation and leadership, etc.
Q. 7. What is meant by principles of communication?
Ans. In order to make your letters, memorandums, reports, representations and other forms of communication effective, you should follow certain scientific principles. The principles of communication that is to be followed are clarity, completeness, conciseness, consideration courtesy and correctness.
Q. 8. What is the communication environment?
Ans. Proper arrangement of physical things surrounding the speaker such as the stage, lighting arrangement, background, etc. These elements also enhance the impact of the presentation.
Q. 9. Discuss the four guidelines for effective communication.
Ans. (a) Clarity.
Q. 10. State Thill and Boven model.
Ans. This model states that communication process starts from the generation of idea and its reaction. When an idea emerges in the mind of somebody, it changes into message. Then it is sent to analyze it and sends his reaction to the sender in the form of feedback.
Q. 11. Discuss the Shannon-Weaver model.
Ans. Shannon-Weaver developed a model in 1949 in the field of electronic communication. Their model was popularly known as the mathematical model. This model consists of an information source,
transmitter, noise source, receiver, and destination.
Q. 12. What is upward communication?
Ans. Upward or upstream communication means the flow of information and ideas from a lower level of authority (subordinate) to a higher level (superiors). Upward communication can be in the form of both written and oral messages which contain suggestions, grievances, complaints, appeals etc.
Q. 13. Discuss the four importance of downward communication.
Ans. (a) To explain the policies, procedures and programmes of the organisation to the employees..
(b) To educate and train employees so as to improve their knowledge and skills.
(c) To inform the employees about their performance and achievements.
(d) To strengthen the authorization structure of the organisation.
Q. 14. What is lateral or horizontal communication?
Ans. Lateral communication refers to the flow of information and ideas between persons and departments at the same level of authority (pears). It is a communication among individuals and groups of equal rank or status. The main purpose of horizontal communication is to ensure mutual cooperation and coordination between peers and inter-dependent work units. It occurs through both spoken and written words.
Q. 15. What are the two advantages and limitations of crosswise or diagonal communication?
(a) Boosting morale.
(b) Speedy action.
(a) Violation of unity of command.
Q. 16. What are the four objectives of communication ?
Ans. (a) To give and receive information.
(b) To provide advice
(C) To provide counseling.
(d) To issue orders and instructions.
Q. 17. Define the term feedback.
Ans. A communication process is said to have feedback, process is said to have feedback, when the receiver of the message has given his response to the sender’s message. With the help of feedback, the communicator comes to know how well the message has been received by the receiver, understood, interpreted comes acted upon. Thus, it can be said that sending back the response about the message to the communicator is known as feedback.
Q. 18. Write four important of feedback.
Ans. (a) Promote good relations.
(b) Improvement in the communication process.
(c) Modification in the message.
(d) Avoid errors in communication.
Q. 19. What are the four guidelines for developing effective feedback skills?
Ans. (a) Focus on specific behavior.
(b) Keep feedback impersonal.
(c) Make feedback well timely.
(d) Keep feedback goal-oriented.
Section-B (Short Answer Questions)
Q. 1. Discuss the communication process. Or Give various steps of communication process. Or Explain the essential elements of communication.
Ans. Elements of Communication Process: The communication process is the inter-relationship between several inter-dependent components. It consists of a whole ser related action and reactions which together results in the sharing of the meaning. In order to understand how communication work it is necessary to describe each of these components and how component part fits into the whole process. A simplified model of communication process is given in figure. This model tells us what is the individual part of communication:
The process shows how these are related to each other. It also identifies the crucial points in the process and provides a guide line for analysis and planning of message. Different parts of communication process are described below:
1. Sender : The process of communication begins when the sender feels the need for it and the idea generates in his mind. The sender or transmitter is the source of the message and wants to transmit for some purpose. The sender may be a speaker, a writer or an actor. He must have a clear picture of his mind of what he wants to communicate. Several ideas may generate in the sender must identify, analyze and sequentially arrange the idea before na sequentially arrange the idea before transmitting them to the very may feel that the sender is mentally toying the help-baked ideas. The ideas should be concrete. The sender should encode the idea in the form of a message.
2. Message: A message means what is being communicated. It may be verbal (spoken or written) or non-verbal (e.g. appearance, body language, silence etc). The message is the heart of communication.
3. Encoding: The sender puts his idea of facts into words, symbols, pictures or gestures which the other person can understand. This part of the communication process is called encoding. It also involves the choice of appropriate media so that the idea is translated into a message that can be transmitted to the other. Words and symbols should be selected carefully keeping in the mind the purpose of communication and the needs of the receiver. The words and symbols should be understandable.
4. Channel and Medium: The channel connects the sender with the receiver. For instance, timetable of a college is the channel that ensures that the teacher and the students go to the same classroom at the same time. No communication can take place if the teacher goes to room No. 21 but the students are in room No. 12, the medium is different from channel. For example, a letter is a medium whereas mail service is a channel. Speech is the medium but loudspeaker is a channel.
5. Rceiver : The person or group to whom the message is directed is known as a receiver. The receiver represents the destination for the message. He may be a listener, a reader or a viewer. Like the sender he has an image of himself and the sender.
6. Decoding: The receiver translates the words and symbols used in the message into an idea and interprets it to obtain its meaning, this is called decoding and it is the opposite of encoding. If the receiver is familiar with the codes used and this perception is good. He will derive more or less the same meaning as meant by the sender. The message should be accurately reproduced in the recognized mind.
7. Feedback: After deriving the meaning, the receiver reacts or responds to the message, he sends back his response to the sender. This return flow of communication is called feedback. The process of communication is incomplete until the sender, received the feedback. If the feedback is in tune with the message, communication is said to be effective.
Feedback is the key element in communication as it is the only way of judging the effectiveness of the message. Feedback indicates the knowledge about the outcome of communication.
Q. 2. What is listening process?
Ans. Listening Process : Listening and reading are the Rx’s activities in communication. As the speaker and the writer have the responsibility to encode carefully, so the listener and the reader have the responsibility to be attentive and to decode carefully.
All the four communication skills are important for any one holding a responsible position. However, much more communication time is spent on oral communication than on written communication and an efficient executive or manager spends more time on being the Rx than on being the Tx, that is, he needs to spend a great deal of the time listening to others rather than moting He must treat the ear as the main organ of communication. Research studies have shown that an executive’s communication time is spent roughly in the following proportion :
Writing : 9% Reading : 16%
Speaking : 30% Listening : 45%
Although most of the communication time is taken up by listening, this skill is usually neglected in schools and business training courses. But recently, listening skill has been given attention and training is given to business executives and supervisors in the skill of listening. It can be improved with training.
Listening does not mean just hearing the words of the speaker; it means making effort to get his full meaning. Besides the meaning of the words, the choice of words is significant in indicating the peaker’s meaning. A speaker who is emotionally disturbed uses exaggerated words; an angry speaker chooses insulting or sarcastic words. Even the tone of voice, gesture, expressions, and silences have meaning.
Listening during a speech is not enough; the listener has to retain, that is, remember, what he has heard. It is necessary to think over the communication received and to note it down, if necessary, immediately after the communication has been completed. It has been found that students listening to a ten-minute lecture can recall only 50 per cent immediately after the lecture and only 25 per cent on the next day. With training, the faults in listening can be corrected and efficiency can be improved.
Q. 3. Explain the nature of communication..
Ans. Nature of Communication: The concept of communication is universal and as old as a human being. That is why different views have been expressed about the nature of communication.
The nature of communication can be studied easily with the help of the following facts :
- Communication as a Human Process: Communication is a human process as it involves two or more persons. This human and organizational process is the means of recording knowledge and passing it on to the succeeding generations.
- Communication as both an Art and Science: Communication contains both the elements of a science and those of art. Communication is a science because it provides a set of principles that can guide the management to find a solution to the specific problems. It is also an art as it develops new situations, new designs and new systems.needed for further improvement. Thus, it can be concluded that communication is both art and science.
- Communication as a Universal Process: The principles and techniques of communication are universal in application but not necessarily and exclusively applied to only business. These are applied to social, religious, charitable, formal, non-formal, non-profit organization also. The fundamental principles of communication are applied to all human activities from the simplest small group to great corporations and the public.
- Communication as a Wide Process: Communication is not merely recognized as a process of giving information but it also includes to obtain the response of the other party and make corrections and changes in his attitude accordingly. The management can convey its expectations to workers and workers can put their suggestions and grievances before the management. Communication is the chain of understanding that integrates an organization from top to bottom, from bottom to top and from side to side.
- Communication as a Social Process: Communication is a social process as it enables everyone in society to satisfy his basic needs and desires through the exchange of written, spoken or non-verbal messages. It is through communication that two or more persons interact and influence each other and consequently bridges the gap in their understanding.
Q.4. How does horizontal or lateral communication contribute to the efficient functioning of an organization?
Ans. Horizontal or Lateral Communication: Horizontal communication refers to the flow of information and ideas between persons and departments at the same level of authority (peers). It is communication among individuals and groups of equal rank or status. For example, production department may communicate with marketing department. Horizontal or lateral communication is a very frequently used channel. The main purpose of horizontal communication is to ensure mutual cooperation and coordination between peers and inter-dependent work units.
Horizontal communication occurs through both spoken and written words. Face-to-face exchange of views and conversation over the telephone are examples of spoken words. These allow freedom of expression due to an informal atmosphere. Doubts can be cleared on the spot and immediate feedback is available. Periodical meetings between heads of departments also enable persons of equal status to share information and ideas. Süch discussions help to solve common problems and to create team work. Letters, memos, and reports are written by means of horizontal communication.
Horizontal communication is essential for the smooth functioning of every organisation. The work of different employees and departments is inter-dependent. For example, the sales department cannot sell goods unless the goods are produced at the right time and cost and in right quality. Production department cannot do so until the purchase department procures the required materials and machinery. This is possible only when the finance department provides adequate funds at the required time. Horizontal communication keeps every department informed of the needs and activities of other departments. The main advantages of horizontal communication are as follows:
- It helps to create mutual understanding and trust between people and departments.
- It facilitates co-operation and coordination between different departments of the organisation.
- It helps in setting interdepartmental and intradepartmental differences without the intervention of the management.
- It makes it possible to solve problems at lower levels.
- It is generally very effective because there are no status barriers. However, it may degenerate into gossip and rumours. There is a need to avoid such time wasting and counter-productive activities.
There are barriers to horizontal communication also. As each individual holds equal rank, none may take initiative to talk or write to others.
This may create ice between colleagues. Some managers do not want their subordinates to communicate among themselves frequently on the fear that they may become too friendly and pose a threat to their authority. There is a need to shed ago and communicate freely.
Every employee should develop the habit of mutual consultations with his peers. Departmental heads should avoid unilateral actions and keep each other informed of their activities and problems. Employees, evry level should keep their superiors informed of the flow of horizontal communication.
Q. 5. Explain the importance and limitations of diagonal communication.
Ans. Diagonal or Crosswise Communication : Diagonal or crosswise communication takes place when persons working at a lower level interact with those working at a higher level across the limits of their reporting relationships.
The persons who communicate are neither in the same work unit nor at the same level of organisational hierarchy. For instance, the production manager may communicate directly with sales officers in the marketing department.
Diagonal communication offers the following advantages :
- Boosting Morale: Diagonal communication provides an opportunity to lower-level employees to interact with managers. This help to improve the morale and commitment of employees towards the organization.
- Coordination: Formal and informal meeting under diagonal communication facilitates coordination between different work units in the organization.
- Speedy Action : Direct interactions between superiors and subordinates working in different work units help to speed up action by cutting across departmental lines.
Diagonal communication suffers from the following limitations:
- Resistance: When a manager directly interacts with the subordinates of another manager, the latter may feel that he has been bypassed. He may not implement the suggestions as he has not been consulted.
- Violation of Unity of Command: Diagonal communication violates the principle of unity of command. It may cause confusion and conflicts in the minds of subordinates.
- Anarchy: In the absence of well-accepted procedures for diagonal interactions there may be internal anarchy in the organization.
Q. 6. Discuss about downward communication.
Ans. Downward Communication: Downward communication tions flow from a higher authority to a lower authority. For example, the message of a branch may communicate next year’s deposit targets of the branch to his employees. Orders, Instructions policy statements, notices, circulars, job sheets, and employee’s hand books are the main form of downward communication.
Downward communication is very common. It is based on the assumption that at a high level, individuals have the authority to communicate to lower level persons. It is also known as “down Stream” communicator. Both oral and written medium is used for downward communication. Face-to-face talks, telephone and public address are the main sources of oral message.
Q. 7. Give the importance and limitations of downward communication.
Ans. Importance of Downward Communication: Importances of downward communica- tion are as follows:
- To gives specific instructions and directions about the job entrusted to a subordinate so that the job is performed efficiently.
- To explain the policies, procedures and programs of the organization to its employees.
- To educate and train employees so as to improve their knowledge and skills.
- To explain the subordinates the rationals of their jobs so that they understand the significance to their works in relation to organization goals.
- To inform the employees about their performance and achievements. Limitations of Downward Communication
Downward communication suffers from the following problems :
- Delay: As the line of communication is very long. Downward communication is a time-consuming process. A message sent by the chief executive might reach the clerical staff when it is no longer significant or relevant.
- Too much or too Fewer Information: Some superiors talk too much while others talk too little. When a manager transmits too much information to his subordinates, he may create confusion or may leak confidential information.
- Filtering: Most of the downward communication is oral. A large part of the information is lost during transit because some of it is retained at every level. Research reveals that 80 percent of the information is lost when transmitted downward through five levels of the management hierarchy. The lowest level worker does not receive the complete message sent by the chief manager.
- Distortion: In downward communication line of communication is often long. The message is screened at every successive level. Frequent twisting distorts the message and by the time it reaches its destination, its meaning may not be what the sender intends.
- Built-in-Resistance: Downward communication often requires changes in the work routine attitudes of subordinates. It is also authoritarian in nature as subordinates do not participate in deciding it. Therefore, downward communication generally causes resentment and faces resistance from employees.
BBA Business Communication Notes
Q. 8. Discuss the guidelines for effective communication.
Ans. Guidelines for Effective Communication: Communication experts have suggested several tips and techniques for better communication. These techniques are given below:
- Clarity: Good communication never “happens”. It does not take place off-hand or random Rather it is the result of advanced thinking and careful planning.
The principle of clarity implies both clarities of thought and clarity of expressions.
- Completeness: Every communication must be complete and adequate. Incomplete message keeps the receiver guessing, create misunderstanding and delay actions. Every person should, therefore, be provided with all the required facts and figures.
- Conciseness: Brevity is the soul of good communication. Therefore, we should use only relevant details in our message. Ruskin says, “say all you have to say in the fewest possible words.”
- Consideration: In order to communicate effectively, think and look from the receiver’s angle. The sender should accept a human approach and understand the emotions and sentiments of the receiver. He should understand and focus on the need of the receiver.
- Correctness: You should not transmit any message unless you are absolutely convinced of its accuracy and authenticity. If employees forward incorrect information to managers then decisions based on such information may be wrong. Similarly, the transmission of incorrect information to outsiders may spoil relations and reputation.
- Courtesy: Courtesy means friendly and helpful behavior towards others. Polite manners facilitate communication. Politeness encourage participative communication.
- Attentiveness: While sending and receiving a message, you must pay full attention. While transmitting, attention is necessary to ensure that all the relevant details are included in correct and clear
- Objectivity: The communicator should be fully impartial while sending a message. He should not allow his emotions, attitudes or bias to distort the message. He should communicate unpleasant facts in such a way that the feelings of the receiver are not hurt.
- Use Grapevine Strategically: According to this principle, informal channels of communication should be used judiciously to supplement the official channel information communication or grapevine can be fruitfully utilized particularly.
- Feedback: Feedback should be used carefully in planning and executing communication. Where feedback is not automatically available, the sender should ask questions, requests, reply, etc.
11. Careful Use of Body Language: In face-to-face oral communication, body language should be used to reinforce words. Proper posture, right eye contact, and appropriate facial expressions help to make communication effective. Positive body language requires positive feelings.
- Elimination of Noise : Noise is the greatest barrier of communication. Every possible effort must be made to eliminate noise caused by machine, equipment, communicator devices etc.
Q. 9. Discuss the various models of communication. Or Explain the Indian models of communication.
Ans : Models of Communication: Communication model is meant to follow the path for communication. There are many communication models to understand the process of communication. Some of the models are as follows:
Shannon and Weaver Model: Shannon and Weaver developed a model in 1949 in the field of communication. Their model was popularly known as a mathematical mode. They gave the following basic elements of the process of communication :
Information Sources: Idea originating in the mind of sender is said to be the source of information.
(b) Transmitter: The sender transforms his idea into a message and sends it to another person called the transmitter.
(C) Noise Source: All the obstacles distorting a message are known as noise.
(d) Receiver: The person who receives an information is called the receiver. He decodes the message to have a better understanding.
(e) Destination: Communication process comes to an end at this step, the sender of message gets some feedback from receiver. However if no feedback is received, communication process comes to an end.
2. David Berlo’s SMCR Model: One of the best methods widely used for communication model is SMCR model developed by Berlo. Although it is simple and versatile yet it presumes an enormous background of behavioral science. This model illustrates the four basic concepts :
3. Danne’s Model: This model was formulated by a scientist Danne in 1967. According to him, the the communication process revolves in the form of a circle having no starting or endpoints.
4. Thill and Boven Model : This model states that the communication process starts from the generation of ideas and up to reaction. When an idea emerges in the mind of somebody, it changes into a message. Then it is sent to the receiver, who analyze it and sends his reaction to the sender in the form of feedback.
5. Aristotle’s Model: The first step towards the development of a communication model had been taken by Aristotle. He had developed an easy, simple and elementary model of communication process. This model is based on the following three basic elements:
(a) The speaker · (b) The speech (c) The audience (the person addressed)
Speaker Speech → Audience
According to this model “the person addressed” is most important shaping the message.
6. Indian Models: In India, communication models have been introduced from time to time. In earlier days, the king used to send messages to the public and also used to listen to their complaints and suggestions. The different medium of communication was used by kings to transmit their message. Before freedom, Indians propounded different communication models for sending the message to different parties with the sole purpose of getting freedom. The communication system in India during British period :
The communication system in India after independence:
Section-C (Long Answer Questions);
Q. 1. Define the term communication and discuss its characteristics.
Ans. Communication: The word communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means to share. Communication may, therefore, be defined as sharing information, – facts, opinions, emotions, and ideas, so as to create mutual understanding between people.”
According to Newman and Summers, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.”
This definition indicates that communication is more than transferring information. It involves giving and receiving messages and the message may contain not only facts but opinions and emotions too. Communication may be defined as the process by which people exchange meaning through the use of a common set of symbols.
In the words of Allen, communication is “The total sum of all the things one person does, he wants to create an understanding in the mind of another, it is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening, and understanding.”
This is a comprehensive definition suggesting that communication is an orderly and ongoing process.
According to Scott, “Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of idea ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting action which will accomplish organizational goals.”
An analysis of these definitions will reveal the following characteristics of communication:
- Communication is essentially a two-way process. The information has not only to be sent but has also to be received and understood. This process is incomplete until the response or reaction based on paper understanding is available.
- Communication is an ongoing process. When communication is absent human activity ceases to exist.
- Communication is essential in all types of organizations and at all levels of management. It pervades all human relationships.
- The basic purpose of communication is to create mutual understanding by giving/seeking information, persuading/influencing others and eliciting actions.
- Communication consists not only of facts but also ideas and emotions too. Communication is much more than words. The tone and facial expressions often carry greater meaning than words. We can communicate a lot through signs. symbols and gestures. For example: A victory sign made by two fingers. May a time communication is better than words.
- Organizational communication consists of a flow of messages through a series of networks. These are network for problems solving, workflow, information sharing and socializing.
- Complete communication is that there should be a sender and a receiver. For example: If a person shouts in a forest when no one present there is no communication.
- Communication is a dynamic process. It incorporates the changing shape of the participants and the environments. Change in the mood and thinkings of the sender and receiver of the message influence the effectiveness of communication. The way a message is received depends upon which of the five sensory organs (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin) of the receiver are most active at that time.
- Communication is a goal-oriented process. Communication can be effective, if the sender and receiver both are aware of the goal of communication and there is congruence of their goals.
- Communication is an inter-discip ary science. Knowledge derived from several sciences is used in communication. Anthropology (the study of body language), psychology (the study of perception and attitudes), sociology and political science (the study of voting behavior) have provided insights to make communication effective.
BBA Business Communication Notes
Q. 2. “The basic objective of all communication is to obtain an understanding response.” In light of this statement, describe the objectives of communication.
Ans. Objectives of Communication: The basic purpose of communication is to convey information and ideas in such a manner that will produce a response as desired by the sender. The overall objective of business communication in organizations is to ensure effective functioning of the organization. Communication may be used for any of the following purposes:
- To Give and Receive Information: An individual often communicates with other individuals to give or receive information. In an organization, the management uses communication to keep the employees well informed about the goals, policies, and rules. When the employees are well informed about various aspects of the job, they can perform better. Meetings, telephone, notices, employees handbook and bulletins are used to convey necessary information to employees. Similarly, an organization communicates with outsiders (investors, customers, suppliers, government, public, etc.) to provide them information about its plans and contributions. This helps the organization to improve its image in society.
Managers require accurate and up-to-date information for formulating plans and taking decisions. Such information may be collected from both inside and outside the organization. Internal information consists of production and sales data, qualifications and potential of staff, labor absenteeism, and turnover, etc.
It is available in the books and other records of the organization. External information contains data relating to market conditions, government policies, the supply of raw materials and power, etc. It can be obtained through market surveys, trade fairs, and exhibitions, government and trade publications, etc.
The information may be given or received orally or in writing, the information should be accurate, reliable and up-to-date otherwise decisions based on the information is likely to be misleading.
- To Provide Advice: Information tends to be factual and neutral whereas advice is subjective and opinionized. Advice may be given on personal or official matters. Parents advise their children and teachers advise the students. In business, supervisors advise workers in handling machines and equipment in factories or offices. Managers need specialized advice from experts in matters like taxation, project finance, quality control, engineering, etc. The need for expert advice has increased with the growing complexity of the business.
Advice is most effective when given through face-to-face contact. Advice should be given in a confidential and informal manner with the purpose of helping the employee improve his performance. Tact and sympathetic tone are helpful and the employee should not be made to feel inferior or guilty. .
- To provide Counselling: Counselling is an organized and specialized activity requiring professional expertise and an objective approach. The modern age is full of stress and strain. When an employee is facing some personal or family problems his morale and efficiency tend to decline. Therefore, professionally managed firms often employ psychologists, doctors, lawyers, etc. to help employees overcome maladjustment, emotional and other problems. These experts hold counseling sessions with employees who require counseling and vocational guidance. Face-to-face conversation with counselors helps workers to improve their physical and mental health.
- To Issue Orders and Instructions: In order to get things done, a manager issues orders and instructions to his subordinates. An order is a directive to do something whereas an instruction indicates how to carry out the order. Order involves the assignment of task while instruction specifies the way the task is to be performed: An order is more formal and less detailed than an instruction. Orders and instructions are based on the supervisor’s authority and subordinates are expected to obey them.
Orders and instructions may be oral or in writing. Oral orders are more quick and informal. On the other hand, written orders are more specific and provide a record for future reference. An order must arouse an active and willing response. This is possible when the order is clear and complete and given in a friendly manner.
Consultation with employees in planning the order may help them to understand it better. An instruction should state the situation with which it deals, the need for the instruction and the action required. Many organizations pubļish manuals or handbooks that contain orders, instructions and rules, and procedures.
5. To Impart Education and Training: Education involves formal communication over a long period so as to widen knowledge and skills. It consists of both teaching and learning. Education and training of workers and executives is necessary to keep them abreast of new developments, to improve their efficiency and potential and for the orientation of new employees.
Lectures, case studies, seminars, study tours and audio-visual aids are used for training. Education may be provided to customers and public also. For example, government agencies use mass media like television and newspapers to impart education in family planning, hygiene, road safety, pollution control etc.”
6. To Receive Suggestions: Employees and customers are a useful source of new ideas for vare in direct touch with operations and procedures of banking. Suggestions flow business as they are in direct touch with operations and hack and represent a mild and subtle form of communication. Executives should set upwards as feedback and represent a mild wine and should have an open mind towards constructive suggestions from their side banks have formal suggestion schemes.
Under such a scheme, suggestion subordinates. Progressive banks have formal suggestion convenient places in the office/branch. Employees at all levels are encouraged boxes are installed at convenient places in the office/branch, questions in these boxes. At periodic intervals, the suggestions are taken out from the boxes. These suggestions are scrutinised by a suggestion committee. Useful suggestion are implemented and employees
who offered then given awards. through upward communication. Reports are written for descriptions of the progress of work. Appeals are made by employees to seek favors like leave, promotion etc. Demands and representations are usually made by groups of workers and are supported by arguments. Grievances and complaints are made against existing rules/regulations, systems and procedures and their implementation.
- To Persuade People: Persuasion is the art of influencing the attitudes, opinions and actions of people. Managers try to persuade workers to put in their best efforts. Sales persons persuade customers to buy products and services. Politicians persuade public to vote for them. Persuasion is an important objective of communication and it requires the ability to speak and write effectively. Persuasion is more effective when face-to-face conversation is used with tact. Persuasion becomes all the more necessary to convince employees that changes are needed in existing rules, procedures, technology, working and service conditions in the organization.
- To Issue Warning and Notice: Warning and notice are generally given only after milder methods like advice and appeal fail to achieve results. Warning implies a notice to caution people in special situations. Warning may be given orally or in writing but it should be confidential. A written warning is known as memo. For example, management must issue a notice in writing before suspending an employee. Similarly, a trade union may give a written warning before calling a strike. Warning and legal notice may be sent to customers who fail to make payment in time. A notice ‘No Smoking’ may be written on the main gate of the factory.
Warning is a forceful form of communication because it carries with it a sense of urgency, It demands immediate action and in case of default it may lead to punishment. Need for warning arises when employees violate the rules and regulations.
Negligence, lack of punctuality, misuse of forage of office stationery are situations that may require warning. Warning and reprimand should be issued in private and should not be the result of prejudice. There should be no display of rage or loss of temper.
Warning should be used after the charge against an employee is found to be true. The purpose of warning should be to improve behavior rather than to punish or humiliate the person.
- To Improve Morale : Morale reflects the mental health of people. High morale is necessary to improve efficiency and performance. Communication about the policies and programs of the organization helps to improve the attitudes and morale of employees. Notices, bulletins and meetings are used to prevent/remove rumors and fears among employees. Upward communication in the form of suggestions and grievances is used to raise morale. Attitude surveys and joint consultation may be used to judge employee morale. Free flow of communication helps to realize pent-up emotions and provide a feeling of reassurance to staff.
- To Motivate People: Motivation is the process of inducing people to work hard for achieving organizational goals. An atmosphere security and mutual cooperation and trust is essential for this purpose. Communication is a very effective means of building friendly and trustful environment. The contents, tone and timing of communication exercise a significant influence on motivation. Employees need to be kept well informed about the organization and its progress. Face-to-face talks and company magazines are used to create a sense of mutual understanding. Suggestion schemes and consultations with staff, praise for outstanding effort, etc. also help to improve motivation.
- To Improve Discipline: Rules and regulations are made known to employees through written and oral communications. Suggestions and grievances from employees help managers to make necessary changes in disciplinary rules and procedures. Action is taken to enforce discipline becomes more acceptable to employees when the actions are properly explained. Communication is also used to create safety consciousness among people. Training is given to prevent accidents also involves communication.
Communication is a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding. It involves a sender, the transmission of a message through a selected channel/medium and a receiver. It is a two way communication process concerned with sharing and understanding information in an effective manner.
(1) Source/Sender – The Sender/Source is the origin of the idea or message. It may be an individual or a group. The sender conceives the idea, prepares the message, selects the channel and transmits the message to the receiver.
(2) Message – It is any signal that triggers a response from the receiver. It may be a verbal (written or spoken) or nonverbal (body language, silence, appearance, sound, sign etc.).
(3) Encoding – Translation of an idea into a message appropriate for transmission by the source/sender is called encoding. While encoding a message, one must consider –
- What contents to include?
- How will the receiver interpret it?
- How it may affect one`s relationship?
(4) Channel – Channel refers to the means through which the message travels from the sender to the receiver. The channel maybe mass media such as T.V., newspaper, radio or interpersonal channel such as telephone, email, correspondence etc. Selection of a channel depends upon:
- The message to be communicated
- Importance of the message
- Number of receivers
- Availability of channel
- Cost and effectiveness of channel
(5) Receiver – It may be an individual or a group of individuals for whom the message is intended.
(6) Decoding – It refers to the process through which a receiver translates the encoded message, symbols etc. understands it and interprets it to from certain meaning.
(7) Feedback – It is the reaction or response of the receiver to the message sent by the sender. The response can be based upon a clear interpretation of the message or on a misunderstood or misinterpreted message.
Features of Communication
(1) Communication is a Science
Communication is basically more of a science than just a mere skill set. Effective communication skills involve use of:
- Psychology – Deals with personality, attitudes and temperament, perception levels and persuasion skills
- Anthropology – This aspect deals with Body language which plays a crucial role in effective communication
- Sociology – Deals with larger number of diversified population and their opinions
(2) Communication is a give and take Process
Any communication is effective only when it is understood in the appropriate manner by the receiver as intended by the sender. It can be referred as a two way process in which both the ways namely conveying and receiving is perfect.
(3) Common goal makes communication successful
Communications become highly effective when goals and targets to be achieved are clearly understood by both the communicator and the receiver. Thus communication is termed as a goal oriented process when it comes to organization management.
(4) Communication is a continuous process
Effective communication is an ongoing process of telling, listening and understanding.
(5) Communication is an active process
Communication is an active process that changes with the changing environment and mindset of people.
(6) Communication has no boundaries
In a typical business scenario, Communication does not have any boundaries or limits. Communication prevails at the lower levels in the organizations as much as it is spread across middle and top management levels.
(7) Communication is incomplete without a receiver
Communication requires at least two human beings. The two people involved in communication are the communicator and the receiver. Without a receiver, nothing gets communicated by the communicator.
(8) Communication elicits reactions and responses
Effective communication is one that elicits appropriate reactions and responses in people at the receiving end. When the communicator has effective persuasion skills the receiver gets influenced, eliciting a desired response. A good communicator is one who is able to deliver information sought by the receivers.
(9) Communication has multiple purposes
Different types of communication are carried out for achieving various kinds of purposes. While some communication aim at solving problems, some are carried out to enable uninterrupted workflow. Communication is used as a tool to share information as well as for the purpose of socializing.
(10) Communication happens in multi-fold ways
Communication is that aspect of sharing information which does not depend on any single medium. For instance, communication does not solely depend on expressions through words in oral or written form alone. The gestures we make, the symbols we use to communicate certain ideas and facts and the sign language used to show emotions, all are part of communication. Many a times, signs, symbols and gestures communicate the intended message more clearly than words.
Contribution of Effective Business Communication to Organizational growth
(1) Boosts morale and acts as a Motivator
Strong communication skills act as a morale booster in a typical business environment. Organizations with people who have good communication skills foster the best climate for business achieving business prosperity in every possible manner.
(2) Rapid advancements in terms of technology
Effective communication skills act as direct pointers to technological advancements in organizations. Be it the understanding of the technology or introducing the same for business development, effective communication skills is of paramount importance.
(3) Handling the labour force in an effective manner
When it comes to typical Industrial scenario, handling the laborers in a satisfying manner and conflict management through effective communication skills becomes mandatory. Effective communications skills act as the basis of negotiation skills, convincing skills which in turn help an organization to handle Trade Union demands and conflicts in a professional manner
(4) Handling relationships in a matured manner
Effective communication skills helps in managing relationships in a friendly and successful manner. Be it peer to peer communication or top to bottom interactions, appropriate skill sets related to communication help in fostering relationships in organizations.
(5) Understanding the behavioral and psychological aspects of humans
Effective communication skills help employees as well as the Management teams to understand each other. When people are handled based on their behavioral capabilities and psychological aspects, the interactions and outputs from the same are developmental.
(6) Customer handling and branding activities
In today’s competitive business environment, organization development depends mainly on the effectiveness of Branding and Marketing activities. All organizations with astounding communication skills succeed in reaching to their customers through their marketing communication skills.
(7) Maintaining effective Public Relations
Communication plays a crucial role in maintaining Public relations that encompasses interactions with vendors, Government Agencies, Suppliers and many other groups that are involved in business activities.